Estimated reading time: 6 minutes
In the previous article we have seen the most common use cases of a SOCaaS , explaining how it can be useful for companies to use this tool to prevent cyber attacks and also explaining which are the most common Threat Models .
In this article, however, we will take a closer look at some of the more common indicators of compromise ( IOC ). First we will briefly look at the malware threat models that the use of a SOCaaS can prevent and block. As it works, a SOCaaS can be very flexible and analyze a lot of data at the same time, thus providing in-depth and accurate results.
Malware Threat Models
It is important to know how to distinguish and classify the different types of malware to understand how they can infect systems and devices, the level of threat they represent and how to protect against them. We at SOD recommend adopting the use of a SOCaaS in order to be able to classify the entire range of malware or potentially unwanted objects. Malware is categorized based on the activity they perform on infected systems.
Wannacry Malware Detection
Thanks to this threat model it is possible to detect the behavior of the well-known malware Wannacry < / a>.
Wannacry malware is a ransomware that attacks the system by encrypting files of particular importance to an organization in order to make them illegible.
Early detection of ransomware is probably the most effective action you can take to defend yourself. There are also services that are able to block the action of the malware and restore any files already encrypted with those of a backup, for example Acronis Cyber Protect Cloud .
Network anomaly followed by data infiltration
Identifies successful network data aggregation attempts, followed by signs of data infiltration. Below we see some of the anomalies and how the use of a SOCaaS can identify important clues to counter threats.
During a network scan you may notice enumerations of AD accounts and privileges, count of LDAP services outside the corporate network and a suspicious number of ticket requests to Kerberos protocol . In addition, other indicators can be a spike in LDAP traffic and the enumeration of SMB services.
As regards the anomalies of the network drive , the use of a SOCaaS is able to control access to the sharepoint in order to identify an unusual number of accesses to shared elements. This also in relation to users and their level of access.
In terms of Data Aggregation and data infiltration, the quantity of bytes downloaded from the server ports and via FTP protocols are monitored, as well as an unusual quantity of bytes transmitted to the external.
Petrwrap / Goldeneye / Amalware detection
This threat model aims to detect malware Petrwrap . The use of a SOCaaS can detect network scanning activity by monitoring the number of SMBv1 activities, as well as anomalies in these activities. Attempting to reach a never-before-reached host may also be an indicator.
Another way in which these threats can be detected with the use of SOCaaS is by auditing of suspicious privileged activity. For example, it is verified that there is no escaletion of privileges, unusual access to an admin zone or even tampering with log files.
Risk indicators in general
Risk indicators are metrics used to show that the organization is subject to or has a high probability of being subject to a risk.
These indicators are used to classify the type of behavior or threat for a policy and can be used in multiple policies for different functionality based on the data source. Risk indicators can be chained with threat models to identify sophisticated attacks across multiple data sources.
In essence, these are clues or alarm bells that indicate events that a company’s security operators should pay particular attention to. The use of a SOCaaS can help identify these clues by analyzing large amounts of data and logs in a short time.
Below is a non-exhaustive list of some of the most common threat indicators that are identifiable through the use of a SOCaaS. We will divide them into different areas, for clarity.
As for accounts, obviously, blocking an account is an alarm bell, as well as an unusual number of accounts created or a disproportionate number of failed authentication. Finally, the use of a SOCaaS could indicate an IOC as a suspicious number of accounts running concurrently .
The anomalies concerning the access or in any case the account include the detection of access to the anomalous administrative sherepoint but also the loading times of the anomalous applications. Applications that use an unusual amount of memory may also be indicators of compromise.
As for accounts, obviously, blocking an account is an alarm bell, as well as an unusual number of accounts created or a disproportionate number of failed authentication. Finally, the use of a SOCaaS could indicate an IOC as a suspicious number of accounts running concurrently .
Network alarm bells are, of course, the most common. Since networks are like “roads” of a corporate infrastructure, it is normal that anomalous behaviors in these are particularly relevant.
Common indicators are abnormal DNS zone transfers or failed requests to the firewall. But also an abnormal number of running hosts or ICMP connections. Traffic in general is also controlled through the use of SOCaaS, so that any suspicious data movement is analyzed or otherwise verified. Examples of this are packet movements to critical ports, RDP, SSH, or connection attempts to a DHCP server. These events often indicate abnormal attempts to connect to objects or network shares.
Through the use of a SOCaaS it is also very simple to control the behavior of the accounts that often show alarm bells in themselves . For example, an account logging into a host for the first time, creating an account, or adding privileges.
Relying on luck to catch threats is madness , as demonstrated by SolarWinds attack .
Create your luck with our SOCaaS solution , making sure you spot threats before incidents happen and that you are “lucky” enough to counter them.
Contact us to find out how our services can strengthen your company’s defenses, we will be happy to answer any questions.
Estimated reading time: 4 minutes
Today, facing an attack in a corporate SOC is very similar to being under attack without knowing which direction the blow is coming from. The threat intelligence can keep you informed of security issues. However, in many cases, this information is only provided when you are already under attack, and is rarely very useful except in retrospect. It would take a different approach to data analysis, and that’s exactly what we propose with predictive cybersecurity .
In cybersecurity, threat intelligence is still relied upon as a fundamental defensive tool. Unfortunately, threat intelligence only covers a subset of threats that have already been found, while attackers constantly innovate . This means that new malware executables, phishing domains and attack strategies are created all the time.
Threat intelligence has a strong value for reactive incident response. It helps when pivoting through an investigation, identifying intent or other useful data, and providing additional investigative assistance. But it has limited value for detection, as threat actors avoid reusing their attack infrastructure from one target to another.
If the clues you see are different from those known from previous attacks, what can you do to move forward with effective detection? A legitimate question, for which predictive cybersecurity perhaps has an answer.
… what if you could know what is going to hit?
SOCaaS: predictive cybersecurity
Eyes on opponents rather than past attacks
The SOCaaS solution offered by SOD brings predictive cybersecurity capabilities to cybersecurity. The solution maps adversaries , instead of threats, and analyzes their actions to predict the behavior and the tools used in their attacks.
The analytical engine translates behavioral patterns into profiles of adversary attack infrastructures , which indicate as ( trojan, phishing or other forms of attack ) and where ( branches, customers, partners, peers, industry and geographies ) < strong> attackers are planning to target your company .
This provides a preemptive attack map, which identifies opponents based on their attack phase and current position within the extended business landscape . But not only that, in fact, information about the opponent, typical attack patterns and possible countermeasures that can be taken in advance are also identified. This way you can cancel the threat before it materializes .
Predictive cybersecurity: understand what’s going to happen first
Our SOCaaS provides predictive detection capabilities against internal and external threats with the combination of user, entity and adversary behavior analysis. Our Next-Gen SIEM uses an analytics-driven approach to threat detection. SOC provides visibility in the crucial early stages of an attack. That is when cyber actors are targeting, planning and preparing the infrastructure for an attack.
With this level of predictive visibility, the team can prevent attacks and systematically contain those in progress. Predictive cybersecurity allows defenders to tune their systems against the attack infrastructure. In fact, it is possible to build blacklists that include the IP addresses and the host names of the instances used for the attack . Other measures include fortifying corporate systems against the specific malware that is used to target them, rendering the attack powerless when it occurs.
Opponent Behavior Analysis extends the capabilities of Next-Gen SIEM by continuously providing updated analysis of opponent information and behavior . This encompasses the entire attack infrastructure for dynamic and proactive threat protection.
SOCaaS automatically translates the pre-attack behavior of opponents into actions or countermeasures that can be taken against phishing, compromise of corporate email, ransomware, fraud and many other common threats.
Correlate breaches from the same adversary / campaign into a cohesive threat, even if different pieces of attack infrastructure are used for each event.
Prevention and preventive defense
Preemptively blocking an opponent’s entire attack infrastructure, such as newly created phishing domains, for preemptive defense.
Strengthen vulnerable resources
Focus and secure the most vulnerable parts of your infrastructure based on information that identifies which areas are possible targets.
The information provided by SOCaaS is used to add more context to existing threats, as well as provide information on attacks that have not yet been implemented or are in the early stages, such as reconnaissance. This allows for direct action against evolving threats and a more robust defense.
Relying on luck to catch threats is madness, as the recent SolarWinds attack . Make your fortune with SOD’s SOCaaS solution, making sure you see threats before they happen and are “lucky” enough to counter them.
Estimated reading time: 8 minutes
The term shoulder surfing might conjure up images of a little surfer on his shirt collar, but the reality is much more mundane. shoulder surfing is a criminal practice in which thieves steal your personal data by spying on you while using a laptop, ATM, public terminal or other electronic device among other people . This social engineering technique is a security risk that can cause disaster, especially if the stolen credentials are corporate.
The practice long predates smartphones and laptops and dates back to when criminals spied on pay phone users as they entered their calling card numbers to make calls . Many years have passed, but the technique has not been lost. Thieves have evolved to observe their victims typing their ATM PINs, paying at self-service petrol pumps, or even making a purchase in a store.
A similar technique for ATM theft involves a card cloning device superimposed on the card insertion hole and a micro camera to spy on the code. The micro camera performs an act of shoulder surfing . Card cloning is essential because without a physical device the pin is useless, but in the case of account credentials on the network, all you need is user and password.
When does Shoulder Surfing take place?
shoulder surfing can happen whenever you share personal information in a public place. This includes not only ATMs, coffee shops and POS devices in general, but virtually any place where you use a laptop, tablet or smartphone to enter personal data.
Long-time shoulder surfers did not usually loom behind their victims to scrutinize information. Instead, they stood at a safe distance and interpreted finger movements as people typed numbers on the keyboard . Similarly, today’s social engineers often escape attention as they quietly observe others in public places such as airport lounges and shopping malls, bars and restaurants, on trains or subways, or wherever there are people, to tell the truth.
Indeed, today’s most sophisticated criminals are watching from further away, hidden from view. They could use binoculars, micro cameras, or the camera of their phone or tablet to scan your screen or keyboard. Not only that, they may eavesdrop as you read credit card numbers on the phone or provide other sensitive information. Criminals could also take pictures, make a video or audio record of the information and then interpret it later.
Whatever the methodology, it is clear that technology has not only helped us to be more connected and be able to afford to pay for a frappuccino with our mobile phone, but it has also exposed us to security risks. When it comes to sensitive data, especially if there is a corporate account involved that could access other people’s sensitive data, you should never let your guard down , consequences could be very serious .
As shoulder surfing commonly happens
Before suggesting some methods to prevent shoulder surfing to be put into practice immediately, let’s take a closer look at how credential theft could happen with this technique.
At the bar or in the cafeteria
You’re in a busy restaurant bar waiting for a friend. To pass the time, you connect to Instagram. Unfortunately, you don’t notice that the person stuck in line next to you is looking at your password, which happens to be the same one you use for your email and bank account.
At the ATM
You’re taking cash at an ATM. You feel safe because the man after you in line is at least 10 feet away and is even looking at his phone. In fact, he is recording your finger movements on his phone and will later decrypt them to get your PIN number.
To the airport
Your flight is delayed, so grab your laptop and kill your time by reading a couple of work emails to keep up to date. Log in to the company website to read your mail and enter your username and password. You are so calm that you don’t see the woman a few places away as she stares at the screen while you enter data.
What are the consequences of shoulder surfing?
Using your credit card information to make fraudulent purchases is just one example of the damage you could suffer if you fall victim to shoulder surfing . The more personal information a criminal captures about you, the more serious the consequences can be for your bank account and financial health.
A serious case of shoulder surfing can expose you to identity theft . A criminal could use your personal information, such as your social security number, to open new bank accounts, apply for loans, rent apartments, or apply for a job under your name. An identity thief could get their hands on your tax refund, use your name to get medical treatment, or even apply for government benefits in your name. They could also commit a crime and provide your personal information when questioned by the police, leaving you with a dirty record or arrest warrant.
Of course, if you suspect this has happened, you’ll need to go to the police immediately, block your checking accounts and notify the bank. If fraudulent actions have already been carried out in your name, you may need to prove that you are not involved.
Things get dangerous if the stolen data is from a corporate account. In fact, with the use of valid credentials, anyone could enter the company’s system and perform all kinds of actions, such as collecting additional data, placing malware, running a ransomware , steal customer data and then sell it online.
How to defend yourself from shoulder surfing
Two levels of protection can be identified, the first is proactive and is aimed at preventing credentials from being exposed to malicious people, the second is active and provides software to detect attempts to use stolen credentials.
Defend yourself proactively
If you really can’t avoid entering sensitive data on your laptop, tablet or smartphone in a public place, you should follow the countermeasures listed below.
Tip 1: Before entering any sensitive data, find a safe place . Make sure you sit with your back to the wall. This is the best way to protect yourself from prying eyes. Avoid public transport, the central armchairs of a waiting room and places where there is a lot of people coming and going.
Tip 2: Use a privacy filter. This hardware device is a simple polarized translucent sheet that is placed over the screen. It will make your screen look black to anyone looking at it from any unnatural angle . This will make it much more difficult for unauthorized people to see your information.
Tip 3: Two-factor authentication requires a user to prove their identity using two different authentication components that are independent of each other. Since this type of authentication only passes when both factors are used correctly in combination, the security measure is particularly effective. For example, this method is often used a lot in online banking. There are many services that allow you to use your mobile phone as a second authentication factor . This is done through special apps.
Tip 4: Another solution is to use a password manager . By doing so, you no longer have to enter each password individually on your computer. The password manager will do this for you after you enter your master password . This prevents unauthorized people from using your keyboard to determine the real password, provided that you properly protect your master password .
Actively defend yourself with a SOC and behavior analysis
Now let’s imagine that the corporate account credentials have been stolen. At this point only a behavior control system can trigger an alarm and therefore block the user before there is any damage.
In fact, using correct credentials, a normal traditional SIEM would not trigger any alarms. For an older generation SIEM, access would be legitimate, because the credentials are correct. The attacker would have free undisturbed access to the system and could continue with his attack plan.
With SOD’s SOCaaS service, however, abnormal access would trigger an alarm. The SOC provided is equipped with a Next Generation SIEM and a system UEBA control behavior . This means that any deviation from the user’s usual behavior would be reported.
In the case of credential theft, as happens with shoulder surfing, the access made by the attacker would therefore trigger an alarm because something is wrong . For example, the login could take place at anomalous times, in another country / IP, from a different operating system, etc.
shoulder surfing is a social engineering technique that focuses on user carelessness while entering sensitive data into a system. In the event that a user’s corporate credentials are stolen, the only really efficient thing is to have a system that analyzes user behavior and reports whenever suspicious actions are detected.
If you want to know in detail how a SOC and UEBA system can help your company defend against social engineering attacks, do not hesitate to contact us, we will be happy to answer any questions.
Estimated reading time: 6 minutes
A logic bomb, also called slug code , is a piece of code inserted into an application, virus or malware that implements a malicious function after a certain time limit or under conditions specifications.
These “bombs” are often used via viruses, worms and Trojans to better manage your time and do maximum damage before you are noticed . They perform actions such as corrupting or altering data, reformatting a hard drive, and deleting important files.
In this article I want to explain what a logic bomb is and offer some suggestions for preventing damage.
What is a logic bomb virus?
A logic bomb is often embedded in a virus or otherwise in an executable file. It consists of malicious code that triggers an attack when specific conditions are met. Conditions can be positive (something that happens) or negative (something that doesn’t happen). In the first case an example is that of opening a program, however, an example of a negative condition is a user who does not log in.
Logic bombs are often installed by someone with high level access, such as a sysadmin. Such a person can wreak havoc by setting these codes on multiple systems and programming them to “explode” simultaneously when a certain event occurs. For example, they could trigger when a certain employee is removed from the salary database, ie when he is fired.
The term slag code refers to manipulated code that makes an otherwise safe program malicious. The logic bomb time versions are the most common ones and use the passage of a certain amount of time as a positive condition.
Whatever the name used, the method of attack is clearly the same: the code remains dormant in the infected software until it is triggered . Common attacks involve data corruption, file deletion and hard drive wiping .
How does it work
How a logic bomb works depends on who designed it. Each logic bomb is unique, which is why they are difficult to track . They are usually customized to be as undetectable as possible. They are often disguised to look like a typical computer virus or embedded in other types of malware such as worms . Worms and viruses are different, but logic bombs don’t care about the distinction – they can cause damage through both.
Is a logic bomb actually malware? Since they are part of other programs, no, but they usually have malicious intent. This is why slag codes are so difficult to detect. Furthermore, being “only” code, potentially insertable anywhere, mitigating the risk is more complicated.
The best thing to do, as an end user who might be involved in a logic bomb attack, is to keep an eye out and ask your company’s IT experts to do the necessary checks if in doubt. The risk is to unintentionally trigger the bomb trying to find it.
Examples of attacks
Logic bombs can subtly change a snippet of code so that it appears technically normal to an automated threat detection system, while it would appear highly suspicious to the human eye. In 2016, a freelance programmer voluntarily caused a recurring spreadsheet malfunction at a subsidiary of the Siemens company. The subsidiary continued to hire him to solve the problem he had caused himself (Source). In this case, the employees did not suspect anything until a lucky coincidence forced the malicious code to come out.
Even companies can use logic bombs to hack their customers . In 2005, Sony was embroiled in a scandal for releasing CDs that triggered a logic bomb when inserted into a computer. The slag code contained on the CDs installed a rootkit that blocked the PC’s ability to copy CDs. (Source)
Another high-profile case occurred in the early 2000s, when a UBS Global employee, angered by a salary dispute, planted a logic bomb that caused more than $ 3 million worth of damage . A clear sign that a very small code snippet can cause a great deal of damage. (Source)
In 2013, a time bomb attack in South Korea wiped out the hard drives of several banks and broadcasting companies. The group responsible for the attack put the time bomb inside a piece of malware that ended up infecting over 32,000 systems . The bombs all exploded together, causing chaos across the country. (Source)
Where did they come from and how to prevent logic bombs
As we have also seen in the examples, logic bombs are typically distributed within a closed network, such as that of a company or branch. One of the likely sources is a disgruntled employee with administrator access , so careful monitoring of staff outbound activities should reveal any suspicious activity . But that’s not all, logic bombs can also be placed in email attachments and suspicious file downloads , so users should be vigilant when choosing which files to download.
As we saw when we talked about phishing and social engineering , the most hackable part of a system are often the users. This is why a preventive campaign is always an excellent choice. Taking care of the staff also means offering specific training through ethical phishing services.
In addition to prevention, it’s good to limit administrative privileges to a select group of employees so that someone is less likely to cause serious damage to your network with a logic bomb. This preventative method also reduces the number of suspects in the event of an attack, making belonging to that specific group of employees in itself a deterrent against internal attacks.
The solution proposed by SOD
Where prevention fails and hackers win, it is the ideal field for implementing advanced monitoring and analysis systems.
SOD offers, for example, a SIEM system in the SOC as a Service solution. The SIEM constantly collects information on what is happening in the network . This information is then enriched with contextual metadata to standardize and manage it better. Already this is capable of triggering alarms if some suspicious events occur. But if this were not enough, the SOC also has a “ User and Entity Behavior Analysis ” (UEBA) tool that analyzes user behavior and, thanks to the interaction of an AI, is able to identify suspicious behavior. .
If you want to know more about the SOC service we offer, or if you have any questions about how SOD can help you keep your business safe, don’t hesitate to contact us. We will be happy to answer any questions.
Ransomware commonly comes up with an email that tricks users into trusting a malicious file. Many of the most recent data breaches have been completed because a user has been the victim of such an attack in the previous period. Threats such as ransomware, which focus on user compromise, are causing more and more companies to adopt user and entity behavior analysis (UEBA) in their security operations center (SOC). The new functions of the SOC service, including long-term search, are oriented towards the increasing offer of additional tools for the optimal management of corporate security.
We continue to innovate our platform to increase the power of SOC in fighting ransomware and other threats. In our latest release, we have added even more machine-learning and context-aware detection capabilities that enable security analysts to tackle the most sophisticated attacks. Furthermore, the latest updates bring an ever greater ease of use for security architects.
Long-term search for the security analyst
The service introduces a number of innovations to reduce detection and response times for security analysts and threat seekers.
Improved detection of sophisticated threats
– Long-term search helps analysts discover hidden threats by providing a search capability on archived data. The search is scalable and does not affect SIEM performance.
– Analytics Sandbox helps break down false positives by providing an online QA environment to test and validate use cases.
– Persona-based threat chains detect advanced threats more accurately, including the dynamic relationship between users, hosts, IP addresses, and email addresses. Analysts benefit from greater visibility into the progression of an attack. This feature combines suspicious activity from a single user into a single priority alert, instead of separate and unrelated alerts.
– Relative Rarity offers analysts a broader context on how rare an event is compared to all other events in their environment.
– Viewing security alerts using the MITER ATT&CK Threat Framework helps analysts prioritize risk and reduce response times.
Reduction of response times
– Improved case management allows for better management, sharing and investigation of alarms, allowing operators to respond more quickly.
– New EDR integrations improve incident response by providing additional endpoint data from CarbonBlack Defense, Tanium, Symantec DLP and others.
– Better search views improve the analyst experience by reducing detection and response times. They help analysts easily identify compromised accounts, data exfiltration, and associated hotspots.
Why long-term search is so important
With a global dwell time of around 60 days on average, threat hunting continues to be an important part of cybersecurity resilience. However, searching through the data history usually takes a long time.
Many vendors are unable to dynamically scale a quick search through archived data without significant effort. The latest features of our SOCaaS provide this possibility for threat hunters with long-term search on an almost unlimited scale. With long-term research, organizations can reduce the time it takes to investigate and find threats that are already in their environment.
Analysts need to continually query the data to see if there are new threats. For example, an analyst might learn from a trusted source that their industry has been targeted. At this point we need to investigate a new indicator of compromise that has just been discovered to verify if an attacker is already inside.
Through long-term search, SOD’s native SOCaaS SIEM allows threat hunters to be proactive, making historical data research fast and convenient.
By introducing new technologies into our SOC service, we are offering more and more security for our customers.
We take care of your data by verifying not only that it is not safe now, but also that it has not been breached in the past. In case we suspect a new threat, we know how to spot it.
If you have any questions, contact us, we will be happy to answer all your questions.
The practice of shadow IT is the use of computer systems, devices, software, applications and services without the explicit approval of the IT department. In recent years, it has grown exponentially with the adoption of cloud-based applications and services.
While shadow IT could improve employee productivity and drive innovation, it can also introduce serious security risks to the organization due to data breaches, potential compliance breaches and more.
Why users practice shadow IT
One of the main reasons employees apply shadow IT is simply to work more efficiently. A 2012 RSA study reported that 35% of employees believe they need to bypass their company’s security policies just to get their job done right. For example, an employee may discover a better file sharing application than is officially allowed. Once you start using it, the use may spread to other members of your department.
The rapid growth of cloud-based consumer applications has also increased the adoption of shadow IT practices. The days of packaged software are long gone; Common applications such as Slack and Dropbox are available with a simple click, and corporate data is easily copied beyond work applications to employee personal devices, such as smartphones or laptops, especially in BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) working conditions .
Shadow IT: Security Risks and Challenges
The point is that if the IT department is not aware of the use of an application, they cannot support or guarantee that it is secure. Industry analyst firm Gartner predicted, in 2018, that by 2020, one-third of successful attacks businesses experience focus on their shadow IT assets.
While it is clear that the practice will not go away, organizations can minimize risks by educating end users and taking preventative measures to monitor and manage unauthorized applications.
Not all shadow IT is inherently dangerous, but some features like file sharing and storage and collaboration (for example, Google Docs) can cause sensitive data leaks. This risk goes beyond applications alone: the RSA study also reports that 63% of employees send work documents to their personal email to work from home, exposing data to networks that cannot be monitored.
In times like the one we are experiencing, in which teleworking is encouraged and, in some cases, the only possible solution, it is essential to have an eye for the applications in use on employees’ computers.
Benefits of Shadow IT
Despite the risks, shadow IT has its advantages. Getting IT approval can take time that employees can’t afford to waste.For many employees, approval is a productivity bottleneck, especially when they can get a fix in minutes.
Having IT behaving like an Orwellian “Big Brother” doesn’t always help productivity. Discerning cases of positive shadow IT can be the best compromise. Finding a middle ground can allow end users to research solutions that work best for them. This gives IT time to control user data and permissions for applications. If end users do not need to request new solutions, the IT department has been given time to focus on more critical tasks.
Whatever the reason why shadow IT occurs, if the IT department is unaware of it, the risk of breach is high. What the corporate cyber security departments should do is implement automated traffic and behavior control systems.
The solution offered by a SOC as a Service is the most complete in this respect. It allows you to keep an eye on all the devices in the system and also monitor user behavior.
Thanks to the Nextgen SIEM and UEBA systems, in fact, the collection of usage data is easy and manageable in real time. The data collected is enriched and aggregated to give analysts the most complete view possible and allow rapid intervention. Meanwhile, the UEBA system checks that there are no anomalous behavior by users or suspicious outgoing data traffic.
Shadow IT, while not usually a malicious attack, is a practice that should be discouraged and, as it is risky, stopped in the bud.
Tempo di lettura: 5 min
Un numero crescente di aziende fa leva sul SOAR per migliorare l’efficacia delle proprie operazioni di sicurezza informatica. In questo articolo, spieghiamo come avvantaggiarsi del valore del SOAR potrebbe essere cruciale per migliorare la sicurezza della vostra organizzazione.
Che cos’e’ il SOAR?
Coniato dalla societa’ di ricerca Gartner, Security Orchestration, Automation and Response (SOAR) e’ un termine usato per descrivere la convergenza di tre mercati tecnologici distinti:
1. L’orchestrazione e l’automazione della sicurezza.
2. Le piattaforme di risposta agli incidenti di sicurezza.
3. Le piattaforme di intelligence delle minacce.
Le tecnologie SOAR consentono alle organizzazioni di raccogliere e aggregare grandi quantita’ di dati e allarmi di sicurezza provenienti da una vasta gamma di fonti. Di conseguenza l’analisi umana e meccanica e’ migliorata, cosi’ come la standardizzazione e l’automazione del rilevamento e del ripristino delle minacce.
E’ stimato che entro la fine del 2020, il 15% delle organizzazioni con un team di sicurezza fara’ leva sulle tecnologie SOAR. Nel 2018 erano l’1%.
In che modo SOAR sta aiutando le aziende a superare le sfide della sicurezza?
La veloce evoluzione tecnologica sta portando in campo sfide complicate per il settore IT. Le minacce sono in continua evoluzione, il personale qualificato e’ in costante carenza e le proprieta’ IT da gestire sono in continuo aumento. Di conseguenza, il concetto di SOAR sta aiutando le aziende di tutte le dimensioni a migliorare la loro capacita’ di rilevare e rispondere rapidamente agli attacchi. Vediamo come, nella pratica, SOAR può migliorare la sicurezza aziendale.
1. Fornire intelligence di migliore qualita’
Affrontare le piu’ recenti e sofisticate minacce alla sicurezza informatica richiede una conoscenza approfondita delle tattiche, delle tecniche e delle procedure (TTP) degli aggressori, cosi’ come la capacita’ di identificare gli indicatori di compromesso (CIO).
SOAR aggrega e convalida i dati provenienti da un’ampia gamma di fonti. Nello specifico, queste sono piattaforme di informazioni sulle minacce, tecnologie di sicurezza, sistemi di rilevamento delle intrusioni e le tecnologie SIEM e UEBA. Cosi’, attraverso i dati raccolti e convalidati, il SOAR aiuta i SOC a diventare piu’ orientati all’intelligence.
L’effetto di cio’ e’ che il personale di sicurezza e’ in grado di contestualizzare gli incidenti, prendere decisioni piu’ informate e accelerare il rilevamento degli incidenti così come la risposta alle minacce.
2. Migliorare l’efficienza e l’efficacia delle operazioni
La necessita’ di gestire cosi’ tante tecnologie di sicurezza disparate puo’ mettere a dura prova il personale addetto alla sicurezza. I sistemi hanno bisogno di un monitoraggio costante per garantire prestazioni efficienti. Inoltre, le migliaia di allarmi giornalieri che generano possono anche portare ad un affaticamento pericoloso. Il costante passaggio da un sistema all’altro non fa che peggiorare la situazione, costando alle squadre tempo e fatica, oltre ad aumentare il rischio di errori.
Le soluzioni SOAR aiutano i SOC ad automatizzare e semi-automatizzare alcuni dei compiti quotidiani delle operazioni di sicurezza.
Presentando intelligence e controlli attraverso un unico pannello e utilizzando intelligenza artificiale e apprendimento automatico, gli strumenti SOAR riducono significativamente la necessita’ per i team SOC di eseguire il ‘cambio di contesto’.
Inolte, possono contribuire a garantire che i processi siano gestiti in modo piu’ efficiente. Questo migliora la produttivita’ e la capacita’ delle organizzazioni di affrontare un maggior numero di incidenti senza la necessita’ di assumere personale aggiuntivo. Un obiettivo chiave dell’approccio SOAR e’ quello di aiutare il personale di sicurezza a lavorare in modo piu’ intelligente e non piu’ duramente.
3. Migliorare la risposta agli incidenti
Per ridurre al minimo il rischio di violazioni e limitare i vasti danni che possono causare, una risposta rapida e’ di vitale importanza. SOAR aiuta l’organizzazione a ridurre il tempo medio di rilevamento (MTTD) e il tempo medio di risposta (MTTR). E’ possibile qualificare gli allarmi di sicurezza e porvi rimedio in pochi minuti, anziche’ in giorni, settimane o mesi.
SOAR, quindi, consente alle squadre di sicurezza di automatizzare le procedure di risposta agli incidenti. Le risposte automatizzate possono includere il blocco di un indirizzo IP su un firewall, la sospensione di account utenti o la messa in quarantena degli endpoint infetti di una rete.
4. Semplificare la reportistica
In molti centri operativi di cyber security, gli operatori in prima linea passano molto tempo nella gestione dei casi, redazione e creazione di rapporti e nella documentazione delle procedure di risposta agli incidenti. Invece, aggregando le informazioni provenienti da un’ampia gamma di fonti e presentandole tramite dashboard visive e personalizzate, SOAR puo’ aiutare le organizzazioni a ridurre il lavoro collaterale, migliorando al contempo la comunicazione interna.
Inoltre, grazie all’automazione dei compiti delle procedure, SOAR aiuta a codificare la conoscenza sulle minacce.
In ultima analisi, svolgere i compiti piu’ velocemente significa avere piu’ tempo per la risoluzione e mitigazione delle minacce. Piu’ a lungo queste non vengono affrontate, maggiori sono le possibilita’ di danni e malfunzionamenti.
Mentre sia le informazioni sulla sicurezza che la gestione degli eventi (SIEM) e SOAR accumulano dati rilevanti da piu’ fonti, i servizi SOAR si integrano con una piu’ ampia gamma di applicazioni interne ed esterne.
Al momento, molte aziende utilizzano i servizi SOAR per potenziale il software SIEM interno. In futuro, si prevede che, man mano che i fornitori SIEM cominceranno ad aggiungere le funzionalita’ SOAR ai loro servizi, il mercato di queste due linee di prodotti si fondera’.
SOD applica la tecnologia SIEM Next Generation e UEBA per la gestione dei cyber threats e dei processi SOAR. Questo garantisce prevenzione e tempestivita’ di ottimo livello. Se vuoi saperne di piu’, visita la nostra pagina del servizio SOCaaS e contattaci per maggiori informazioni.
A SIEM solution in IT is one of the essential components of a SOC (Security Operation Center). Its task is to collect information and analyze it in search of anomalies and possible breaches in the system. But the defense process hasn’t always been that simple. What we now call SIEM, Security Information and Event Management, is the union of two different types of cyber security tools.
SIM and SEM: the origins
Before the arrival of a complete SIEM solution in computing, security was heavily focused on perimeter security and did not keep the internal network adequately controlled. The first solutions developed in the 90s were basic and basically dealt with security information management (SIM) or security event management (SEM). They were solutions available as tools that had to be deployed on-site in the data center to be protected. This limited scalability, because adding capacity required the purchase of additional equipment.
These early solutions were also built on proprietary databases that forced customers to use technology from a single vendor. If you wanted to move your data to another system, the process was long and complicated. It should also be noted that archiving was more expensive, so only the most valuable data was collected. Furthermore, although the SIM and SEM solutions contained all the data necessary for the defense, the search and alarm were rudimentary. Additionally, they depended on experienced security analysts to research, understand and interpret what they found in the data.
SIEM origins in computer science
As data became more sensitive and technology more powerful, SIEM systems (SIM + SEM) became capable of ingesting, processing and storing a great deal of data. Next-generation SIEM IT solutions are able to use signature-based alerts to identify threats in collected data. However, only those alerts that have identified indicators of compromise (IOC) of a certain threat can be identified in this way.
To be clear, if the type of attack to which a system is subjected has not been cataloged in a series of IOCs, a first generation SIEM is not able to detect it. The main drawback of those systems was the very limited ability to detect unknown cyber threats.
To give a practical example: it was possible to use a rule like this: “give a warning if a user enters 10 consecutive wrong passwords“. In theory this could be used to detect brute force password attacks. But what if the attacker only tried 9 passwords in a row? Or what if the alarm was given for a very forgetful user?
Next Gen SIEM (NGS)
A next generation SIEM is built on a large data platform that provides unlimited scalability and is hosted in the cloud. A next gen SIEM includes log management, advanced threat detection based on behavior analysis and automatic incident response, all on a single platform.
This eliminates the problems that old on-premises systems were prone to. Not having to install anything and being able to send the necessary data to the cloud quite simply, the computing power of the local machine is not compromised and the SIEM can manage all the data safely.
How a SIEM proceeds in cyber threat analysis
1. Data Collection: An IT SIEM solution collects data from across the organization using agents installed on various devices, including endpoints, servers, network equipment and other security solutions. Next generation SIEM includes support for cloud applications and infrastructure, business applications, identity data and non-technical data feeds.
2. Data enrichment: Enrichment adds further context to events. SIEM will enrich data with identity, resources, geolocation and threat information.
3. Data storage: The data will then be stored in a database so that it can be searched for during investigations. The next generation SIEM exploits open source architectures and big data architectures, exploiting their scalability.
4. Correlation and Analysis: SIEM solutions use several techniques to draw actionable conclusions from SIEM data. These techniques vary greatly.
5. Report: A SIEM, particularly a next generation SIEM, gives you the ability to quickly search for data, allowing you to dig through alerts and search for threat actors and indicators of compromise. The displayed data can be saved or exported. It is also possible to use out-of-the-box reports or create ad hoc reports as needed.
What a SIEM is used for
Threat hunting and investigation
The ability to perform threat hunting on a SIEM is critical to understanding the true patterns of attacks based on access, activity and data breaches. By developing a detailed and contextual view of attacks, security analysts can more easily develop policies, countermeasures and incident response processes to help mitigate and remove the threat.
Response in case of an accident
An effective response to incidents is essential to intervene more quickly and reduce the residence time of the threat. For this, a SIEM provides an incident response playbook with configurable automated actions. A SIEM is able to integrate with third party solutions for security orchestration (SOAR) or individual case management.
Defense against insider threats
The reason why insider threats are such a big problem is because it’s not about entering the perimeter, but about exploiting insider positions. They can be your employees, contractors or business associates. It may be they themselves wanting to exploit their location, or their account may have been hacked.
With all kinds of internal threats, the attacker tries to stay hidden, gathering sensitive data to exploit. This could cause significant damage to the company, its position in the industry and its relationship with consumers or investors. By using a SIEM, you avoid this risk.
Cyber threat detection
Your organization is likely to have at least one sensitive data repository. Cybercriminals thrive on looting this data for financial gain. Many breaches begin with a simple phishing email against an organization’s target. Simply clicking on an attachment can leave malicious code behind. A SIEM will allow you to monitor advanced cyberthreat patterns such as phishing, beaconing and lateral movement.
For many industries, adherence to compliance standards is critical. A SIEM can help by providing reports focused on data compliance requests. Integrated packages covering all major mandates, including PCI DSS, SOX, and ISO 27001, are a standard feature of SIEMs as well.
Next Generation SIEM
A next generation SIEM is not just a cloud hosted system. It also makes use of the implementation of AI and Machine Learning to increase the defense of the IT system.
We will see it in a future article, but it is right to specify that the SOCaaS offered by SOD makes use of the latest generation technology offered by Next Gen. SIEM systems. Contact us to find out more about it and talk to experts who can dispel all your doubts.
Tempo di lettura: 5 min
Evolvendosi al di la’ delle sue radici nella gestione dei log file, gli odierni fornitori di software per la gestione delle informazioni di sicurezza e degli eventi (SIEM) stanno introduciendo l’IA, l’analisi statistica avanzata e altri metodi analitici nei loro prodotti. Ma cos’e’ un software SIEM e quali sono i suoi utilizzi?
Il software SIEM
Acronimo di Security Information and Event Management, e’ un prodotto che fornisce ai professionisti della cyber security nelle aziende una visione d’insieme e un track record delle attivita’ all’interno del loro ambiente IT.
La tecnologia usata esiste da piu’ di un decennio, e si e’ evoluta della pratica di gestione dei log file. Ha combinato la security event management (SEM), che analizza i dati dei log e degli eventi in tempo reale per fornire monitoring delle minacce, correlazione degli eventi e risposta agli incidenti, con la security information management (SIM) che raccoglie, analizza e riporta i dati dei log.
Il SIEM raccoglie e aggrega i dati di log generati in tutta l’infrastruttura tecnologica dell’organizzazione, dai sistemi e applicazioni host ai dispositivi di rete e di sicurezza come i firewall e i filtri antivirus. Quindi, identifica e categorizza gli incidenti e gli eventi, oltre ad analizzarli.
Il software persegue due principali obiettivi, che sono: fornire rapporti su incidenti ed eventi legati alla sicurezza informatica, come login riusciti e non, attivita’ di malware e altre possibili attivita’ dannose, e inviare avvisi se l’analisi mostra che un’attivita’ va contro regole prestabilite, indicando un potenziale problema di sicurezza.
Secondo gli esperti, negli ultimi anni la domanda delle imprese di maggiori misure di sicurezza ha spinto il mercato all’espansione. Oggi le grandi organizzazioni guardano al SIEM come a una base per la creazione di un centro operativo di sicurezza (SOC).
Analisi e intelligence
Uno dei principali fattori alla base dell’utilizzo del software SIEM per le operazioni di sicurezza e’ rappresentato dalle funzionalita’ offerte.
Molti prodotti offrono, oltre ai tradizionali dati dei log file, anche feed di informazioni sulle minacce. Alcuni software SIEM hanno anche capacita’ di analisi della sicurezza ed esaminano il comportamento della rete e quello degli utenti per fornire piu’ informazioni sulla possibilita’ che un’azione indichi o meno un’attivita’ dannosa.
In linea generale, gli strumenti SIEM forniscono:
1. Visibilita’ in tempo reale attraverso i sistemi di sicurezza informatica di un’organizzazione
2. Gestione del registro eventi che consolida i dati provenienti da numerose fonti
3. Una correlazione di eventi raccolti da diversi log o fonti di sicurezza, utilizzando regole che aggiungono informazioni importanti ai dati grezzi
4. Notifiche automatiche degli eventi di sicurezza. La maggior parte dei sistemi SIEM fornisce dashboard per i problemi di sicurezza e altri metodi di notifica diretta
Il processo di funzionamento SIEM
Nella pratica, il processo di funzionamento di un sistema SIEM si puo’ suddividere nei seguenti passaggi:
1. Raccolta dati: Tutte le fonti di informazioni sulla sicurezza della rete (es. server, sistemi operativi, firewall, software antivirus e sistemi di prevenzione delle intrusioni) sono configurate per mandare i log file degli eventi. La maggior parte dei moderni strumenti SIEM utilizza agenti per raccogliere i registri degli eventi dai sistemi aziendali, che vengono poi elaborati, filtrati e inviati al sistema.
2. Policy: Un profilo di policy viene creato dall’amministratore. Questo definisce il comportamento dei sistemi aziendali, sia in condizioni normali che durante gli incidenti di sicurezza predefiniti. Si forniscono regole predefinite, avvisi, report e dashboard che possono essere regolati e personalizzati in base alle specifiche esigenze di sicurezza.
3. Consolidamento e correlazione dei dati: Questi software consolidano, analizzano e controllano i log file. Gli eventi vengono poi categorizzati in base ai dati grezzi e vengono applicate regole di correlazione che combinano i singoli eventi.
4. Notifiche: Se un evento o un insieme di eventi fa scattare un allarme SIEM, il sistema notifica il personale di sicurezza.
E’ evidente che un SIEM si ferma all’analisi delle minacce e conseguente notifica. In seguito a queste, occorre che qualcuno intervenga, sia controllando i report che prendendo misure per mitigare l’eventuale minaccia. Questo puo’ avvenire solo se dietro al software e’ presente 24/7 una squadra di tecnici preparati che faccia manutenzione e intervenga quando necessario.
Sebbene queste soluzioni offrono diversi vantaggi alle imprese di tutte le dimensioni e forme, esse presentano anche limiti e vulnerabilita’ che non dovrebbero essere ignorati.
Un SIEM richiede un monitoraggio costante 24 ore su 24, 7 giorni su 7, dei registri e degli allarmi, una regolare manutenzione e configurazione, nonche’ un team di sicurezza dedicato responsabile della gestione del software. La maggior parte del lavoro inizia dopo l’implementazione del SIEM. Pertanto, le organizzazioni non possono fare affidamento solo su queste soluzioni per proteggere le infrastrutture IT critiche.
Anche con un sistema del genere in funzione, i professionisti della sicurezza devono assicurarsi di avere risorse, strumenti, budget e tempo adeguati per poter sfruttare le funzionalita’ e garantire una protezione completa contro le potenziali minacce alla sicurezza.
Sotto questo punto di vista, la soluzione piu’ interessante per le aziende e’ quella di un SOCaaS, che comprende SIEM e gli altri strumenti adeguati per una gestione completa della cyber security di un’azienda.
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